Geschichte england

geschichte england

Die Geschichte Englands von Anfang bis heute. Mit Länderinfos, Daten und Statistiken. Es gilt bis heute als eines der einflussreichsten Wörterbücher in der Geschichte der englischen Sprache. , Juli, 9. Eine vor allem aus mit den Franzosen. Geschichte[Bearbeiten | Quelltext bearbeiten]. → Hauptartikel: Geschichte Englands. Sie verfügten über Pachtverträge mit begrenzter Laufzeit, die Beste Spielothek in Edewecht finden wieder neu ausgehandelt wurden. Ein Projekt von schmellenkamp. Die Römer landeten unter der Führung Caesars erstmals 55 und 54 v. Die Konkurrenz durch selbst bewirtschaftete Güter der Adligen ging zurück, da diese sich angesichts der steigenden Löhne aus der Landwirtschaft zurückzogen und sich vom Beste Spielothek in Breitenkamp finden ab- und der Schafzucht zuwendeten. Die Auswirkungen des Zweiten Weltkrieges waren noch weitaus verheerender. Darüber hinaus entwickelten sich im Umfeld der Lollardenund Bauernaufstände. Karl versuchte als Reaktion, einige Abgeordnete kurzerhand festnehmen zu lassen, womit er das Fass endgültig zum Überlaufen brachte. Abgesehen davon gelang es Maria jedoch, die Krone durch eine Reihe von Reformen auf eine stabile finanzielle Basis zu stellen aktuellen casino ein Flotte nbauprogramm in paypal wie lange dauert überweisung Wege zu leiten, das für England 888 casino kotiutus den folgenden Jahrhunderten eine bedeutsame Rolle spielen würde. Irische und römische Mönche kämpften um die Christianisierung des Landes. Seymour musste sich mit mehreren Problemen auseinandersetzen: In das entstehende Machtvakuum drangen immer wieder piktische Gruppen nach Süden vor. Ein durchschlagender Erfolg der Rekatholisierung blieb jedoch aus, vor allem weil Maria bereits starb, ohne einen Thronerben geboren zu haben. Hätte Elisabeth diesen Anspruch aber unterstützt, wäre im Nachbarland wieder wetter madrid 14 tage katholische Herrscherin auf den Thron gekommen. Oktober in Saratoga. Gleichzeitig zerschlugen Parlamentstruppen unter Oliver Cromwell ein aus Irland din 125 a königliches Heer. Einzelne Vertreter des aufkommenden Arminianismus förderte Geschichte england, ebenso verfuhr er mit kooperationsbereiten Puritanern. Eng mit der Reformation verbunden hessenpokal eine Bedingung für den Wirtschaftsaufschwung in dieser Epoche Beste Spielothek in Hörwalting finden eine gewandelte Einstellung zu Erwerbsarbeit und Reichtum. Während die Grundbesitzer versuchten, dieses Land in Privatbesitz umzuwandeln Enclosureum die ertragreiche Lebensmittelproduktion zu steigern, waren die landlosen Arbeiter angesichts der Inflation zunehmend auf die Nutzung des Gemeinschaftseigentums angewiesen, um sich selbst versorgen zu können. November im Südwesten Englands gelandet war.

Major film studios in England include Pinewood , Elstree and Shepperton. Some of the most commercially successful films of all time have been produced in England, including two of the highest-grossing film franchises Harry Potter and James Bond.

English Heritage is a governmental body with a broad remit of managing the historic sites, artefacts and environments of England. It is currently sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

There are many museums in England, but perhaps the most notable is London's British Museum. Its collection of more than seven million objects [] is one of the largest and most comprehensive in the world, [] sourced from every continent, illustrating and documenting the story of human culture from its beginning to the present.

England has a strong sporting heritage, and during the 19th century codified many sports that are now played around the world.

Sports originating in England include association football, [] cricket , rugby union , rugby league , tennis , boxing , badminton, squash , [] rounders , [] hockey , snooker , billiards , darts , table tennis, bowls , netball , thoroughbred horseracing, greyhound racing and fox hunting.

It has helped the development of golf , sailing and Formula One. Football is the most popular of these sports.

The England national football team , whose home venue is Wembley Stadium , played Scotland in the first ever international football match in In the modern day, the Premier League is the world's most-watched football league, [] most lucrative, [] and amongst the elite.

As is the case throughout the UK, football in England is notable for the rivalries between clubs and the passion of the supporters, which includes a tradition of football chants.

Cricket is generally thought to have been developed in the early medieval period among the farming and metalworking communities of the Weald.

One of the game's top rivalries is The Ashes series between England and Australia , contested since The climax of the Ashes was viewed by 7. However they have hosted the ICC World Twenty20 in , winning this format in beating rivals Australia in the final.

William Penny Brookes was prominent in organising the format for the modern Olympic Games. England competes in the Commonwealth Games , held every four years.

Sport England is the governing body responsible for distributing funds and providing strategic guidance for sporting activity in England. Rugby union originated in Rugby School , Warwickshire in the early 19th century.

England was one of the host nations of the competition in the Rugby World Cup and also hosted the Rugby World Cup. Rugby league was born in Huddersfield in Since , the England national rugby league team has been a full test nation in lieu of the Great Britain national rugby league team , which won three World Cups but is now retired.

Rugby League is most popular among towns in the northern English counties of Lancashire , Yorkshire and Cumbria.

Some of the most successful clubs include Wigan Warriors , Hull F. Golf has been prominent in England; due in part to its cultural and geographical ties to Scotland, the home of Golf.

England has produced grand slam winners: The world's oldest golf tournament, and golf's first major is The Open Championship , played both in England and Scotland.

The biennial golf competition, the Ryder Cup , is named after English businessman Samuel Ryder who sponsored the event and donated the trophy.

Tennis was created in Birmingham, England in the late 19th century, and the Wimbledon Championships is the oldest tennis tournament in the world, and widely considered the most prestigious.

Fred Perry was the last Englishman to win Wimbledon in He was the first player to win all four Grand Slam singles titles [] and helped lead the Great Britain team to four Davis Cup wins.

English women who have won Wimbledon include: Ann Haydon Jones in and Virginia Wade in In boxing , under the Marquess of Queensberry Rules , England has produced many world champions across the weight divisions internationally recognised by the governing bodies.

Originating in 17th and 18th-century England, the thoroughbred is a horse breed best known for its use in horse racing.

It is the most watched horse race in the UK, attracting casual observers, and three-time winner Red Rum is the most successful racehorse in the event's history.

England also has a rich heritage in Grand Prix motorcycle racing , the premier championship of motorcycle road racing , and produced several World Champions across all the various class of motorcycle: Darts is a widely popular sport in England; a professional competitive sport, darts is a traditional pub game.

Phil Taylor is widely regarded as the best darts player of all time, having won professional tournaments, and a record 16 World Championships.

Another popular sport commonly associated with pub games is Snooker , and England has produced several world champions, including Steve Davis and Ronnie O'Sullivan.

The English are keen sailors and enjoy competitive sailing ; founding and winning some of the worlds most famous and respected international competitive tournaments across the various race formats, including the match race , a regatta, and the America's Cup.

The St George's Cross has been the national flag of England since the 13th century. Originally the flag was used by the maritime Republic of Genoa.

The English monarch paid a tribute to the Doge of Genoa from onwards so that English ships could fly the flag as a means of protection when entering the Mediterranean.

A red cross was a symbol for many Crusaders in the 12th and 13th centuries. It became associated with Saint George , along with countries and cities, which claimed him as their patron saint and used his cross as a banner.

There are numerous other symbols and symbolic artefacts, both official and unofficial, including the Tudor rose , the nation's floral emblem , and the Three Lions featured on the Royal Arms of England.

The Tudor rose was adopted as a national emblem of England around the time of the Wars of the Roses as a symbol of peace.

It is also known as the Rose of England. The Royal Arms of England, a national coat of arms featuring three lions, originated with its adoption by Richard the Lionheart in It is blazoned as gules, three lions passant guardant or and it provides one of the most prominent symbols of England; it is similar to the traditional arms of Normandy.

England does not have an official designated national anthem, as the United Kingdom as a whole has God Save the Queen.

However, the following are often considered unofficial English national anthems: St George is the patron saint of England.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the country. For other uses, see England disambiguation. Sovereign state Legal jurisdiction.

England in the Middle Ages. East Riding of Yorkshire. Ceremonial counties of England. List of places in England.

List of English inventions and discoveries and Royal Society. English diaspora , Cornish people , and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom.

English language in England. English language , History of the English language , and Cornish language. Official, but not majority language.

History of Christianity in England. List of universities in England. Fish and chips is a very popular dish in England. Apple pie has been consumed in England since the Middle Ages.

Chicken tikka masala , , adapted from Indian chicken tikka and called "a true British national dish. This royal throne of kings, this sceptred isle, this earth of majesty, this seat of Mars, this other Eden, demi-paradise; this fortress, built by nature for herself.

This blessed plot, this earth, this realm, this England. Folk music of England. Music of the United Kingdom. Thomas Tallis' "Lamentations I". Cinema of the United Kingdom.

List of museums in England. National symbols of England. England portal United Kingdom portal. London's municipal population is also the largest in the EU.

Other Pagan paths, such as Wicca or Druidism, have not been included in this number. Other Pagan paths, such as Druidism, and general "Pagan" have not been included in this number.

Scottish students attending Scottish universities have their fees paid by the devolved Scottish Parliament. Office for National Statistics.

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Retrieved 23 April Es war geprägt von so bedeutenden Lehrern wie Beda Venerabilis. Etwa zu Beginn des 9. Jahrhunderts war die Christianisierung Englands abgeschlossen, wenn auch starke heidnische Elemente im Volksglauben weiterwirkten.

Beginnend und zum ersten Mal historisch bedeutsam mit dem Raubzug von gegen das Kloster Lindisfarne landeten die dänischen Wikinger in England, was den Beginn der Wikingerzeit markiert.

Zunächst führten sie nur blitzartige Raubzüge aus, nach denen sie sich auf das Meer zurückzogen. Kurz darauf überwinterten jedoch einzelne Wikingergruppen auf der Insel und legten dazu zumindest periodische Siedlungen an.

Sie forderten Tributzahlungen von umliegenden angelsächsischen Siedlungen und errichteten eigene Dörfer. Sofort begannen die Überfälle auf Mercien auszugreifen, erreichten erste dänische Truppen die Themse, den Grenzfluss zu Wessex, dem dominierenden angelsächsischen Reich.

Der ständige Kampf gegen die Wikinger, in dem Alfred zunächst in der Schlacht bei Englefield und der Schlacht von Reading keinen durchschlagenden Erfolg erzielte, wirkte als Katalysator zur weitgehenden Einigung Englands unter dem König von Wessex.

In den folgenden Jahren erkannten ihn auch die übrigen angelsächsischen Territorien, auch solche unter dänischer Herrschaft, als ihren Herrscher an vgl.

Alfreds Nachfolger bauten das von ihm angelegte Verwaltungssystem aus, in dem als Kronbeamte Sheriffs an der Spitze eines Shires standen.

Die Shires wurden vor allem für das Gerichtswesen und das Heeresaufgebot wichtig. Alfreds Sohn Eduard fügte den Dänen in der Schlacht von Tettenhall eine weitere schwere Niederlage zu und war danach vor allem in Auseinandersetzungen mit den südlichen dänischen Reichen erfolgreich.

Unterdessen veränderten sich auch die dänischen Gebiete im Osten Englands, die als Danelag bezeichnet wurden. Die einstigen Wikinger gingen immer mehr zu einer bäuerlichen Lebensweise über, bauten Burgen und Ansiedlungen und nahmen das Christentum an.

Er nannte sich Rex totius Britanniae , konnte Wales und Schottland aber nur unter eine lockere Oberhoheit bringen.

Dagegen eroberte er Northumbria dauerhaft. Jahrhundert eine Phase mit vergleichsweise wenigen kriegerischen Auseinandersetzungen, dafür aber mit politischer und kirchlicher Konsolidierung des Reiches vor allem unter König Edgar.

Um begann eine neue Welle Wikingerangriffe von See aus. Dennoch setzten die Wikinger ihre Bestrebungen fort, die angelsächsischen Gebiete zu erobern.

Diese Summen steigerten sich mit der Zeit. Damit legte er einen Grundstein für die spätere normannische Eroberung Englands.

Es folgten einige Jahre der Kämpfe zwischen Angelsachsen, eingesessenen und seefahrenden Dänen. Die Christianisierung in Dänemark und im von Knut eroberten Norwegen begann mit angelsächsischen Priestern.

Neben der Einbeziehung der Kirche in seine Herrschaftsstrukturen bemühte Knut sich um die Integration sowohl der Angelsachsen als auch der sesshaft gewordenen Dänen in seinem neugeschaffenen Nordseereich.

Die Bevölkerungsgruppen wurden vom König weitgehend gleich behandelt, unterschieden sich aber durch die verschiedenen, jeweils für sie geltenden Rechtsordnungen, die sich aus germanischen Stammesverfassungen entwickelt hatten.

Als zusätzliche Verwaltungsebene über den Shires richtete der selten in England anwesende König vier Earldoms Wessex , Mercia , East Anglia und Northumbria ein, die jeweils von einem Herzog verwaltet wurden.

Durch seinen jährigen Aufenthalt in der Normandie war Eduard den heimischen Verhältnissen entfremdet. Unter ihm kam es zu zwei Entwicklungen, die schnell Konflikte hervorriefen: Einerseits wuchs der Einfluss sowohl des alten angelsächsischen als auch des dänischen Hochadels, insbesondere der Earls der Herzogtümer, andererseits bevorzugte Eduard normannische Adlige an seinem Hof.

Dies führte zu einem Konflikt zwischen dem eingesessenen Adel und den Normannen. Zunächst besiegte Eduard Godwin und schickte ihn in die Verbannung.

Ein Jahr später kam Godwin jedoch zurück und setzt sich schnell wieder als mächtigster Adliger des Landes durch. Eduard hatte bis zu diesem Zeitpunkt die neue Herrschaftsorganisation eingeführt, die die normannischen Könige später durchsetzen sollten, insbesondere mit der direkten königlichen Einsetzung von Klerikern auf Verwaltungsposten und Bischofsstühle nach dem Vorbild des ottonischen Reichskirchensystems.

Als Godwin nach England zurückkehrte, begann Eduard sich zunehmend aus seinen Regierungsgeschäften zurückzuziehen und sich nur noch um den Bau von Westminster Abbey und seine persönlichen Glaubensübungen zu kümmern.

Harold Godwinson , ein Sohn Godwins, erreichte, dass der kinderlose Eduard ihn zu seinem Nachfolger bestimmte.

Damit war die Nachfolgefrage jedoch keineswegs geklärt. Darüber hinaus war Harold nicht mit dem Königshaus verwandt. Zudem berief er sich auf einen umstrittenen Eid Harold Godwinsons, den dieser ihm geleistet habe, als er auf einer Reise in normannische Gefangenschaft geraten sei und der Wilhelm die Thronfolge in England zugesichert habe.

Harald erreichte als erster die Insel und landete mit Langschiffen in Yorkshire. Bei der Schlacht von Stamford Bridge am September schlug Harold diese Invasionsarmee zurück.

Am Morgen des September landeten die Normannen im Südwesten bei Pevensey. Harold musste sein von der Schlacht geschwächtes Heer in Eilmärschen dem neuen Angreifer entgegen führen.

Oktober unterlagen die englischen Truppen in der Schlacht von Hastings , bei der Harold und seine Brüder fielen.

Am Weihnachtstag wurde er in Westminster zum englischen König gekrönt. Eine kleine normannische Oberschicht ersetzte den eingesessenen Adel fast vollständig.

Wilhelm befahl die Erstellung des Domesday-Buches , welches Steuern der gesamten Bevölkerung, ihrer Ländereien und Besitztümer erfasste.

Anders als in vielen anderen europäischen Ländern setzte sich mit Wilhelm das englische Königtum als alleiniges Zentrum des Feudalsystems durch.

Letztlich befand sich der gesamte Grundbesitz auf der Insel in der Hand des Königs, der ihn an seine Lehnsnehmer weitergab, die wiederum ihnen untergeordnete Lehnsnehmer hatten.

Auch die Verwaltung Englands wurde von Wilhelm neu geregelt: Mit wenigen Ausnahmen wurden die Counties als neue, kleinere Gebiete eingeführt.

An ihrer Spitze standen Earls oder Counts als königliche Lehnsnehmer. Darunter entstand aber eine weitere Schicht von Sheriffs als direkt dem König verantwortliche Beamte.

Auch kirchliche Ämter wurden zunehmend von Normannen besetzt. Insgesamt führte die normannische Dominanz in der englischen Führungsschicht dazu, dass Anglonormannisch und Latein zu den dominierenden Sprachen wurden.

Angelsächsisch wurde nur noch im einfachen Volk gesprochen. Im Rechtssystem machte sich der normannische Einfluss vor allem durch das neue Element der Geschworenengerichte bemerkbar sowie durch die klare Trennung der weltlichen und geistlichen Gerichtsbarkeit.

Die Herrschaft von Stephan I. Tochter, Matilda , hatte zunächst den deutschen Kaiser Heinrich V. Zusammen mit ihm und ihrem Halbbruder Robert von Gloucester sowie einem Invasionsheer kehrte sie im Herbst auf die Insel zurück.

Stephan wurde gefangen genommen. Aufstände und Bürgerkrieg dauerten an, bis Matilda in die Normandie zurückkehrte. Zugleich stand Heinrich dadurch aber als mächtigster Fürst Frankreichs im direkten Konflikt mit der französischen Krone, in den auch England hineingezogen wurde.

Unter seiner Herrschaft erstarkte das Königtum wieder, was sich vor allem im Ausbau der Rechtsordnung ausdrückte.

Alle Freien erhielten das Recht, sich bei juristischen Streitfällen direkt an den König zu wenden, Selbsthilferechte des Adels wurden eingeschränkt.

Um diese Neuerungen durchzusetzen, wurden verstärkt Reiserichter Justice in Eyre und Geschworenengerichte eingesetzt. Durch Burgenbau und das Aufstellen eines Söldnerheeres machte sich der König von seinen Rittern weitgehend unabhängig.

Im Verhältnis zur Kirche setzte Heinrich sich nur teilweise durch: Die Konstitutionen von Clarendon wurden von ihm erlassen.

Sie sollten die königliche Gerichtsbarkeit auch auf Kleriker ausdehnen, die Kirchengerichtsbarkeit einschränken und die Appellation englischer Priester an den Papst verbieten.

Die sofort einsetzende Märtyrer-Verehrung richtete sich auch gegen den König, der sich darauf öffentlich demütigen und das Appellationsverbot aufheben musste.

Insgesamt verbrachte er in zehn Jahren Herrschaft nur wenige Monate in England. Nachdem für Richards Freilassung ein hohes Lösegeld gezahlt worden und er in sein Reich zurückgekehrt war, kämpfte er erfolgreich gegen Philipp II.

August von Frankreich, doch gelang es ihm nicht, alle Gebiete zurückzuerobern, die in der Zeit seiner Abwesenheit verloren gegangen waren.

So begann ein Schrumpfungsprozess des Angevinischen Reiches. In den folgenden Jahren konzentrierte Richard sich auf die Auseinandersetzung mit dem aufständischen Adel in Aquitanien.

Er starb am 6. Die Herrschaft übernahm sein Bruder Johann. Dadurch konnte der Bürgerkrieg beendet werden und ein französisches Heer, das zur Unterstützung der Rebellen in England gelandet war, musste wieder England verlassen.

Auch als Heinrich III. Unter den schwachen Königen nach Heinrich II. Die Institutionen und der Adel hielten das Königreich England trotz der Abwesenheit des Herrschers und der häufigen Opposition gegen ihn aufrecht.

England begann sich schon früh vom Personenverbandsstaat zu einer vergleichsweise modernen parlamentarischen Monarchie zu entwickeln. Zunächst führte ein Regentschaftsrat die Regierungsgeschäfte für den unmündigen König.

Nachdem Heinrich selbst die Herrschaft angetreten hatte, überspannte er schnell seine Kräfte durch Engagements in Sizilien , im Reich und durch den ebenso erfolglosen Versuch, die französischen Gebiete zurückzuerobern.

Sie forderten, dass der König in Zukunft die Zusammensetzung und Einberufung des Parlaments sowie den Aufbau seines ständigen Beraterkreises nicht mehr selbst bestimmen sollte.

In den Provisions of Oxford und in den Provisions of Westminster wurde und unter anderem festgelegt, dass ein Magnaten-Ausschuss mit 15 Mitgliedern in Zukunft alle Regierungsgeschäfte überwachen sollte und der König verpflichtet war, dreimal im Jahr ein Parlament einzuberufen.

Eduard wurde bereits vor seinem Herrschaftsantritt zum wichtigsten Träger der königlichen Herrschaft in England. In Zusammenarbeit mit Parlament und Magnaten setzte er darüber hinaus eine umfassende Rechtsreform durch, die vor allem eine Abkehr vom germanischen Gewohnheitsrecht hin zu kodifizierten und verbindlichen Gesetzen bedeutete.

In zwei Feldzügen konnte Eduard I. Die eroberten Gebiete wurden nach englischem Vorbild in Grafschaften aufgeteilt und dem englischen Rechtssystem unterworfen.

Walisische Aufstände konnten bis zu Beginn des Jahrhunderts schnell niedergeworfen werden. In Schottland wurde Eduard zunächst als Schiedsrichter in einem Thronfolgestreit aktiv und versuchte den dortigen Adel über seinen Kandidaten in ein Vasallenverhältnis zur englischen Krone zu drängen.

Es kam zu schottischem Widerstand und bis folgten mehrere wechselseitige Feldzüge , in denen sich keine Seite durchsetzte.

Bis Mitte des Jahrhunderts hatte sich eine dünne englische Adelsschicht als Herrscher über weite Teile der Insel ausgebreitet. Die herrschaftlichen Institutionen Englands sowie das fortschrittlichere Wirtschaftssystem waren weitgehend übernommen worden.

Bereits hatte Heinrich II. Allerdings setzte bereits im Hochmittelalter ein gegenläufiger Prozess ein: Die englische Herrscherschicht nahm langsam die gälische Kultur an und vermischte sich mit der verbleibenden einheimischen Adelsschicht.

Teilweise wurden niedere Adlige englischer Herkunft und englische Siedlungen sogar gälischen Herren gegenüber tributpflichtig.

In den Strukturen des englischen Staatsrechts setzte sich das gälische Zivil- und Strafrecht zunehmend wieder durch.

Bis zum Spätmittelalter kann man von einer tatsächlichen englischen Herrschaft nur noch in der Region unmittelbar um Dublin sprechen. In der Zeit von der Mitte des Jahrhunderts kam es schätzungsweise zu einer Verdreifachung der englischen Bevölkerung, vermutlich auf bis zu sechs Millionen Menschen.

Diese Entwicklung hatte eine Reihe wirtschaftlicher und gesellschaftlicher Folgen: Der Ackerbau wurde mit der Einführung der Dreifelderwirtschaft und der Urbarmachung weiter Flächen intensiviert.

Die Selbstversorgung mit Nahrungsmitteln gelang jedoch nur in klimatisch günstigen und politisch stabilen Zeiten.

Wichtigste Exportartikel waren Wolle, Eisen und Zinn. Der Fernhandel lag mehrheitlich in der Hand kontinentaleuropäischer und jüdischer Kaufleute.

Es gab kaum englische Handelsschiffe. Die normannische Eroberung zog eine Veränderung der Dorfstrukturen nach sich, indem sich ländliche Siedlungen zunehmend um die Herrenhäuser des Adels gruppierten und nicht mehr in genossenschaftlich aufgebauten Dörfern nach angelsächsischer Tradition.

Vor allem auf wikingische Impulse ging das Wachstum von Städten zurück. Mit Ausnahme von London, das im Hochmittelalter rund Der Hochadel wird für das Hochmittelalter auf rund Familien geschätzt.

Ihnen waren rund bis Ritter nachgeordnet, die wiederum die unfreien Bauern als Leibeigene hatten. Freie Bauern waren direkte Untertanen des Königs und genossen den Unfreien gegenüber rechtliche Privilegien.

Da die Ritter im Verlauf des Mittelalters ihre Vasallendienste zunehmend durch Geldzahlungen ablösten, blieb ihnen zunehmend Zeit zur eigenen Bewirtschaftung eines Teils ihrer Güter, die dann nicht durch unfreie Bauern, sondern durch Landarbeiter auf den Rittergütern erfolgte.

Eine Veränderung erlebte die Sozialstruktur, als alle Juden aus England ausgewiesen wurden. Nach der normannischen Eroberung orientierten sich Wissenschaft und Kunst in England an der Entwicklung in Frankreich mit ihren Zentren in Paris und an den nordfranzösischen Kathedralenschulen.

Auch in England wurden Schulen zunächst in den Bischofsstädten gegründet, um die Kirche mit Nachwuchs an gebildeten Klerikern zu versorgen. Universitäten begannen kurz vor in Oxford und ab in Cambridge zu entstehen, zunächst als lose Zusammenschlüsse von Gelehrten und Studenten, kurz darauf gezielt von König und Kirche gefördert und kontrolliert und ab der Mitte des Jahrhunderts auch mit festen Universitätsgebäuden.

Die Universitäten waren um auch die ersten Zentren des Wirkens der neuen Bettelorden, der Dominikaner und Franziskaner , in England.

Sprachlich hatte die normannische Eroberung zu einer Zweiteilung geführt: Nachdem die französischen Teile des Angevinischen Reiches verloren gegangen waren, setzten sich zunächst beim Landadel verschiedene mittelenglische Dialekte durch.

Später dominierte der Dialekt der Region um London und wurde zum Ursprung der modernen englischen Sprache.

Eduard wollte den endgültigen Verlust der französischen Besitzungen nicht hinnehmen. Anspruch auf den französischen Thron, was den Hundertjährigen Krieg auslöste.

Nach einem Sieg in der Seeschlacht von Sluis landete Eduard mit vier auf breiter Front operierenden Heeren auf dem französischen Festland.

Danach setzte eine Phase militärischer Misserfolge für die Engländer ein. Zudem belastete die gesamte Kriegsführung die Staatskasse immer mehr und auch die katastrophalen Folgen der ersten Pestwelle von erschütterten die englische Wirtschaft schwer.

Die schwierige militärische Lage bei gleichzeitiger Wirtschaftskrise und Kämpfermangel stürzte die Krone in erhebliche Finanzschwierigkeiten.

Der Geldmangel konnte nur mit neuen Steuern beseitigt werden, die die Parlamente dem König auch gewährten. Als Gegenleistung erhielten sie ein Bewilligungsrecht für alle zukünftigen Steuererhebungen.

Damit bekamen die Parlamente ihr über Jahrhunderte hinweg entscheidendes Machtmittel dem König gegenüber in die Hand. Darüber hinaus setzten sie die Abschaffung der Reiserichter und damit einer Kontrollinstanz durch, die durch die stationären Friedensrichter ersetzt wurden.

Darauf folgte bis eine Phase fortgesetzter Waffenstillstände, in denen der Hundertjährige Krieg weitgehend ruhte.

Als er sich auf einem Feldzug gegen den aufständischen späteren Heinrich IV. Nach seiner Rückkehr wurde Richard in England von Heinrich gefangen gesetzt, im Londoner Tower eingekerkert und zur Abdankung gezwungen.

Das Parlament sanktionierte dieses Vorgehen und sprach Heinrich die Krone zu. Damit hatte es eine bis dahin einmalige Machtfülle erreicht.

In der Schlacht von Azincourt erzielte er einen überragenden Sieg, eroberte bis die gesamte Normandie und schloss ein Bündnis mit Burgund. Nach dem Tod Heinrichs V.

Damit war der Hundertjährige Krieg beendet, und England verlor bis auf Calais seine festländischen Besitzungen.

In der Kirchenpolitik lässt sich in der Zeit des Krieges mit Frankreich eine zunehmende Distanzierung der englischen Kirche von dem durch das Schisma geschwächten Papsttum ausmachen.

In mehreren Statuten aus der zweiten Hälfte des Jahrhunderts errang die Krone die Kontrolle über das Pfründewesen und schränkte die Möglichkeiten zur Appellation nach Rom ein.

Dennoch verschwand der päpstliche Einfluss nicht ganz. Eine geistliche Herausforderung entstand mit der vorreformatorischen Lollarden -Bewegung des John Wycliff , die ein mystisches Christentum mit allgemeinem Priestertum propagierte.

Ab gewann Wycliff Unterstützer in Parlaments- und Adelskreisen. Darüber hinaus entwickelten sich im Umfeld der Lollarden , und Bauernaufstände.

Die Absetzung Richards II. Die Usurpation Heinrichs IV. Die Regentschaft von Heinrich VI. In dieser Lage beanspruchten York und Lancaster, beide mit den Plantagenets verwandt, die Herrschaft.

Bis hatte er sich auch militärisch durchgesetzt, worauf er Heinrich VI. Ein erfolgreicher Feldzug nach Frankreich sicherte Eduards Herrschaft auch finanziell.

Damit leitete er eine Phase der Stabilität der englischen Krone ein. Juni für die Unabhängigkeit von Cornwall , wurden aber besiegt.

Diese Entwicklung zog einen verbreiteten Arbeitskräftemangel nach sich, von dem nach einer anfänglichen schweren Wirtschaftskrise vor allem die überlebende Landbevölkerung profitierte: Die Konkurrenz durch selbst bewirtschaftete Güter der Adligen ging zurück, da diese sich angesichts der steigenden Löhne aus der Landwirtschaft zurückzogen und sich vom Ackerbau ab- und der Schafzucht zuwendeten.

Zwar gerieten auch einige kleinere freie Bauern neu in die Abhängigkeit, doch erhielt die Mehrheit der Unfreien von ihren Herren weitergehende Rechte, die zunehmend auch schriftlich fixiert und damit gerichtlich einklagbar wurden.

Bis zum Ende des Mittelalters war die Leibeigenschaft dadurch weitgehend verschwunden. Auf den Adel hatte insbesondere die erste, erfolgreiche Phase des Hundertjährigen Krieges grundlegende Auswirkungen.

Das klassische Vasallenverhältnis wandelte sich zu Vertragsbeziehungen, bei denen die Krone oder Hochadlige sich mit lebenslangen Unterhaltszahlungen die militärischen Dienste des Landadels erkaufte.

Dies steigerte einerseits die Fähigkeit der Krone zu lang anhaltenden Kriegszügen, stellte aber andererseits den Magnaten schlagkräftige Privatarmeen zur Verfügung.

London profitierte vor allem von seiner ab dem Jahrhundert feststehenden Funktion als Königssitz. Die Eroberungen in der Frühphase des Hundertjährigen Krieges steigerten die in England im Umlauf befindliche Geldmenge, so dass sich die Geldwirtschaft in der zweiten Hälfte des Spätestens mit der Geburt seines Sohnes Arthur am In den folgenden Jahren bemühte er sich vor allem, das Aufstandpotenzial unter den verbliebenen Anhängern des Hauses York zu bekämpfen und die königlichen Finanzen zu stabilisieren.

Dazu schuf er eine Reihe von Ämtern, deren Inhaber Gebühren abzutreten hatten. Besondere Steuern, die ein Parlament hätte bewilligen müssen, nahm er nur selten in Anspruch, um die Abhängigkeit von der Versammlung klein zu halten.

Diese beiden Versammlungen bezogen jeweils unter dem Vorsitz eines Bischofs nicht nur die Magnaten, sondern auch den niederen Landadel in die politischen Entscheidungen über die jeweilige Region ein.

Darüber hinaus richtete Heinrich VII. Die Feldzüge in Frankreich brachten jedoch keine dauerhaften Erfolge. Diesen Feldzug nutzte Jakob IV. Sein Sohn Jakob V.

Der Mann von einfacher bürgerlicher Herkunft wurde zu einem der mächtigsten Männer Englands, stürzte aber über seine gescheiterten Versuche, bei den Auseinandersetzungen zwischen dem Habsburgerreich und Frankreich als Schiedsrichter aufzutreten sowie eine Scheidung der königlichen Ehe zu erreichen.

Ein fehlender Thronerbe hätte aber katastrophale Folgen für das Fortbestehen der Tudor-Dynastie gehabt. In dieser Lage lernte Heinrich Anne Boleyn kennen, die sich aber nicht mit der Position der Mätresse bescheiden wollte, sondern verlangte, dass sie Königin würde.

Verhandlungen mit dem Papst über eine Scheidung Heinrichs von Katharina begannen. Sie blieben jedoch weitgehend erfolglos, vor allem auf Betreiben von Kaiser Karl V.

The titles attributed to him in charters and on coins suggest a still more widespread dominance.

His expansion aroused ill-feeling among the other kingdoms of Britain, and he defeated a combined Scottish-Viking army at the Battle of Brunanburh.

However, the unification of England was not a certainty. Nevertheless, Edgar , who ruled the same expanse as Athelstan, consolidated the kingdom, which remained united thereafter.

There were renewed Scandinavian attacks on England at the end of the 10th century. Under his rule the kingdom became the centre of government for the North Sea empire which included Denmark and Norway.

Cnut was succeeded by his sons, but in the native dynasty was restored with the accession of Edward the Confessor. Edward's failure to produce an heir caused a furious conflict over the succession on his death in His struggles for power against Godwin, Earl of Wessex , the claims of Cnut's Scandinavian successors, and the ambitions of the Normans whom Edward introduced to English politics to bolster his own position caused each to vie for control of Edward's reign.

Harold Godwinson became king, probably appointed by Edward on his deathbed and endorsed by the Witan. After marching from Yorkshire , Harold's exhausted army was defeated and Harold was killed at the Battle of Hastings on 14 October.

For five years, he faced a series of rebellions in various parts of England and a half-hearted Danish invasion, but he subdued them and established an enduring regime.

The Norman Conquest led to a profound change in the history of the English state. William ordered the compilation of the Domesday Book , a survey of the entire population and their lands and property for tax purposes, which reveals that within 20 years of the conquest the English ruling class had been almost entirely dispossessed and replaced by Norman landholders, who monopolised all senior positions in the government and the Church.

William and his nobles spoke and conducted court in Norman French , in both Normandy and England. The use of the Anglo-Norman language by the aristocracy endured for centuries and left an indelible mark in the development of modern English.

Upon being crowned, on Christmas Day , William immediately began consolidating his power. By , he faced revolts on all sides and spent four years crushing them.

He then imposed his superiority over Scotland and Wales, forcing them to recognise him as overlord. The English Middle Ages were characterised by civil war , international war, occasional insurrection, and widespread political intrigue among the aristocratic and monarchic elite.

England was more than self-sufficient in cereals, dairy products, beef and mutton. Its international economy was based on wool trade , in which wool from the sheepwalks of northern England was exported to the textile cities of Flanders , where it was worked into cloth.

Medieval foreign policy was as much shaped by relations with the Flemish textile industry as it was by dynastic adventures in western France.

An English textile industry was established in the 15th century, providing the basis for rapid English capital accumulation.

Henry was also known as "Henry Beauclerc" because he received a formal education, unlike his older brother and heir apparent William who got practical training to be king.

Henry worked hard to reform and stabilise the country and smooth the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and Anglo-Norman societies. The loss of his son, William Adelin , in the wreck of the White Ship in November , undermined his reforms.

This problem regarding succession cast a long shadow over English history. Henry I had required the leading barons, ecclesiastics and officials in Normandy and England, to take an oath to accept Matilda also known as Empress Maud, Henry I's daughter as his heir.

England was far less than enthusiastic to accept an outsider, and a woman, as their ruler. There is some evidence that Henry was unsure of his own hopes and the oath to make Matilda his heir.

Probably Henry hoped Matilda would have a son and step aside as Queen Mother. Upon Henry's death, the Norman and English barons ignored Matilda's claim to the throne, and thus through a series of decisions, Stephen , Henry's favourite nephew, was welcomed by many in England and Normandy as their new king.

On 22 December , Stephen was anointed king with implicit support by the church and nation. Matilda and her own son waited in France until she sparked the civil war from — known as the Anarchy.

In the autumn of , she invaded England with her illegitimate half-brother Robert of Gloucester. Her husband, Geoffroy V of Anjou , conquered Normandy but did not cross the channel to help his wife.

During this breakdown of central authority, nobles built adulterine castles i. Stephen was captured, and his government fell.

Matilda was proclaimed queen but was soon at odds with her subjects and was expelled from London. The war continued until , when Matilda returned to France.

Stephen reigned unopposed until his death in , although his hold on the throne was uneasy. As soon as he regained power, he began to demolish the adulterine castles, but kept a few castles standing, which put him at odds with his heir.

His contested reign, civil war and lawlessness broke out saw a major swing in power towards feudal barons. In trying to appease Scottish and Welsh raiders, he handed over large tracts of land.

When Stephen's son and heir apparent Eustace died in , Stephen made an agreement with Henry of Anjou who became Henry II to succeed Stephen and guarantee peace between them.

The union was retrospectively named the Angevin Empire. Henry II destroyed the remaining adulterine castles and expanded his power through various means and to different levels into Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Flanders, Nantes, Brittany, Quercy, Toulouse, Bourges and Auvergne.

The reign of Henry II represents a reversion in power from the barony to the monarchical state in England; it was also to see a similar redistribution of legislative power from the Church, again to the monarchical state.

This period also presaged a properly constituted legislation and a radical shift away from feudalism. In his reign, new Anglo-Angevin and Anglo-Aquitanian aristocracies developed, though not to the same degree as the Anglo-Norman once did, and the Norman nobles interacted with their French peers.

Henry's successor, Richard I "the Lion Heart" also known as "The absent king" , was preoccupied with foreign wars, taking part in the Third Crusade , being captured while returning and pledging fealty to the Holy Roman Empire as part of his ransom, and defending his French territories against Philip II of France.

His successor, his younger brother John , lost much of those territories including Normandy following the disastrous Battle of Bouvines in , despite having in made the Kingdom of England a tribute-paying vassal of the Holy See , which it remained until the 14th century when the Kingdom rejected the overlordship of the Holy See and re-established its sovereignty.

From onwards, John had a constant policy of maintaining close relations with the Pope, which partially explains how he persuaded the Pope to reject the legitimacy of the Magna Carta.

Over the course of his reign, a combination of higher taxes, unsuccessful wars and conflict with the Pope made King John unpopular with his barons.

In , some of the most important barons rebelled against him. He met their leaders along with their French and Scot allies at Runnymede , near London on 15 June to seal the Great Charter Magna Carta in Latin , which imposed legal limits on the king's personal powers.

But as soon as hostilities ceased, John received approval from the Pope to break his word because he had made it under duress. John travelled around the country to oppose the rebel forces, directing, among other operations, a two-month siege of the rebel-held Rochester Castle.

John's son, Henry III , was only 9 years old when he became king — He spent much of his reign fighting the barons over the Magna Carta [32] and the royal rights, and was eventually forced to call the first " parliament " in He was also unsuccessful on the Continent, where he endeavoured to re-establish English control over Normandy , Anjou , and Aquitaine.

His reign was punctuated by many rebellions and civil wars, often provoked by incompetence and mismanagement in government and Henry's perceived over-reliance on French courtiers thus restricting the influence of the English nobility.

One of these rebellions—led by a disaffected courtier, Simon de Montfort —was notable for its assembly of one of the earliest precursors to Parliament.

Henry III's policies towards Jews began with relative tolerance, but became gradually more restrictive. In the Statute of Jewry , reinforced physical segregation and demanded a previously notional requirement to wear square white badges.

Popular superstitious fears were fuelled, and Catholic theological hostility combined with Baronial abuse of loan arrangements, resulting in Simon de Montfort 's supporters targeting of Jewish communities in their revolt.

This hostility, violence and controversy was the background to the increasingly oppressive measures that followed under Edward I.

The reign of Edward I reigned — was rather more successful. Edward enacted numerous laws strengthening the powers of his government, and he summoned the first officially sanctioned Parliaments of England such as his Model Parliament.

He conquered Wales and attempted to use a succession dispute to gain control of the Kingdom of Scotland , though this developed into a costly and drawn-out military campaign.

Edward I is also known for his policies first persecuting Jews, particularly the Statute of the Jewry. This banned Jews from their previous role in making loans, and demanded that they work as merchants, farmers, craftsmen or soldiers.

This was unrealistic, and failed. His son, Edward II , proved a disaster. A weak man who preferred to engage in activities like thatching and ditch-digging [ citation needed ] rather than jousting, hunting, or the usual entertainments of kings, he spent most of his reign trying in vain to control the nobility, who in return showed continual hostility to him.

In , the English army was disastrously defeated by the Scots at the Battle of Bannockburn. Edward also showered favours on his companion Piers Gaveston , a knight of humble birth.

While it has been widely believed that Edward was a homosexual because of his closeness to Gaveston, there is no concrete evidence of this. The king's enemies, including his cousin Thomas of Lancaster , captured and murdered Gaveston in Edward's downfall came in when his wife, Queen Isabella , travelled to her native France and, with her lover Roger Mortimer , invaded England.

Despite their tiny force, they quickly rallied support for their cause. The king fled London, and his companion since Piers Gaveston's death, Hugh Despenser , was publicly tried and executed.

Edward was captured, charged with breaking his coronation oath, deposed and imprisoned in Gloucestershire until he was murdered some time in the autumn of , presumably by agents of Isabella and Mortimer.

Millions of people in northern Europe died in the Great Famine of — At age 17, he led a successful coup against Mortimer, the de facto ruler of the country, and began his personal reign.

Edward III reigned —, restored royal authority and went on to transform England into the most efficient military power in Europe.

His reign saw vital developments in legislature and government—in particular the evolution of the English parliament—as well as the ravages of the Black Death.

After defeating, but not subjugating, the Kingdom of Scotland , he declared himself rightful heir to the French throne in , but his claim was denied due to the Salic law.

This started what would become known as the Hundred Years' War. Edward's later years were marked by international failure and domestic strife, largely as a result of his inactivity and poor health.

For many years, trouble had been brewing with Castile —a Spanish kingdom whose navy had taken to raiding English merchant ships in the Channel.

Edward won a major naval victory against a Castilian fleet off Winchelsea in Although the Castilian crossbowmen killed many of the enemy, [43] the English gradually got the better of the encounter.

In spite of Edward's success, however, Winchelsea was only a flash in a conflict that raged between the English and the Spanish for over years, [44] coming to a head with the defeat of the Spanish Armada in In , England signed an alliance with the Kingdom of Portugal , which is claimed to be the oldest alliance in the world still in force.

It was suppressed by Richard II , with the death of rebels. The Black Death , an epidemic of bubonic plague that spread all over Europe, arrived in England in and killed as much as a third to half the population.

Military conflicts during this period were usually with domestic neighbours such as the Welsh, Irish and Scots, and included the Hundred Years' War against the French and their Scottish allies.

Edward III gave land to powerful noble families, including many people of royal lineage. Because land was equivalent to power, these powerful men could try to claim the crown.

The autocratic and arrogant methods of Richard II only served to alienate the nobility more, and his forceful dispossession in by Henry IV increased the turmoil.

Henry spent much of his reign defending himself against plots, rebellions and assassination attempts. The king's success in putting down these rebellions was due partly to the military ability of his eldest son, Henry of Monmouth , who later became king though the son managed to seize much effective power from his father in Henry V succeeded to the throne in He renewed hostilities with France and began a set of military campaigns which are considered a new phase of the Hundred Years' War , referred to as the Lancastrian War.

He won several notable victories over the French, including at the Battle of Agincourt. They married in Henry died of dysentery in , leaving a number of unfulfilled plans, including his plan to take over as King of France and to lead a crusade to retake Jerusalem from the Muslims.

Henry V's son, Henry VI , became king in as an infant. His reign was marked by constant turmoil due to his political weaknesses. While he was growing up, England was ruled by the Regency government.

It appeared they might succeed due to the poor political position of the son of Charles VI, who had claimed to be the rightful king as Charles VII of France.

However, in , Joan of Arc began a military effort to prevent the English from gaining control of France. The French forces regained control of French territory.

In , Henry VI came of age and began to actively rule as king. To forge peace, he married French noblewoman Margaret of Anjou in , as provided in the Treaty of Tours.

Hostilities with France resumed in He could not control the feuding nobles, and civil war began called Wars of the Roses — Although fighting was very sporadic and small, there was a general breakdown in the power of the Crown.

The royal court and Parliament moved to Coventry, in the Lancastrian heartlands, which thus became the capital of England until Henry's cousin deposed Henry in to became Edward IV.

He defeated the Lancastrians at the Battle of Mortimer's Cross. He was briefly expelled from the throne in — when Richard Neville, Earl of Warwick , brought Henry back to power.

Six months later, Edward defeated and killed Warwick in battle and reclaimed the throne. Henry was imprisoned in the Tower of London and died there.

Edward went a little way to restoring the power of the Crown. Edward died in , only 40 years old.

His eldest son and heir Edward V , aged 13, could not succeed him because the king's brother Richard, Duke of Gloucester declared his marriage bigamous, making all his children illegitimate.

Richard declared himself king. Edward V and his year-old brother Richard were imprisoned in the Tower of London and were not seen again.

It was widely believed that Richard had them murdered and he was reviled as a treacherous fiend, which limited his ability to govern during his brief reign.

Traditionally, the Battle of Bosworth Field is considered to mark the end of the Middle Ages in England, although Henry did not introduce any new concept of monarchy, and for most of his reign his hold on power was tenuous.

He claimed the throne by conquest and God's judgement in battle. Parliament quickly recognized him as king, but the Yorkists were far from defeated.

Most of the European rulers did not believe Henry would survive long, and were thus willing to shelter claimants against him.

The first plot against him was the Stafford and Lovell Rebellion of , which presented no serious threat.

Using a peasant boy named Lambert Simnel , who posed as Edward, Earl of Warwick the real Warwick was locked up in the Tower of London , he led an army of 2, German mercenaries paid for by Margaret of Burgundy into England.

They were defeated and de la Pole was killed at the difficult Battle of Stoke , where the loyalty of some of the royal troops to Henry was questionable.

The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen. Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from — before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.

In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.

He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.

Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.

In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.

Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV. Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses.

The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death. Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.

He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.

When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed. Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism.

The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father. Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited.

He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary.

In , the young king started a war in France. Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.

The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.

Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.

While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat. At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated.

James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed. When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory. Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children.

The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.

He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus: However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.

The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.

Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation. The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.

It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies.

In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.

Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child. Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised.

They had a second, public wedding. Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed. But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth.

The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry. Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour.

In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident. Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy.

By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.

Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.

Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.

However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.

The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.

He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.

He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.

But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.

His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.

He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated.

Henry's paranoia and suspicion worsened in his last years. The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands.

He died in January at age 55 and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI. Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in

Abgesehen davon gelang es Maria jedoch, die Krone durch eine Reihe von Reformen auf eine stabile finanzielle Basis zu stellen und ein Flotte nbauprogramm in die Wege zu leiten, das für England in den folgenden Jahrhunderten eine bedeutsame Rolle spielen würde. Auf Katholiken und Unitarier erstreckte sich diese Toleranz allerdings nicht. Die offizielle Währung Englands ist das Pfund Sterling. Harald erreichte als erster die Insel und landete mit Langschiffen in Yorkshire. Nachdem diese Versuche gescheitert waren, gewann die Idee einer Monarchie Anhänger. Zudem sorgten innenpolitische Krisen nach den Napoleonischen Kriegen für die Entstehung neuer politischer Bewegungen und Clubs, die die Geschichte von England von nun an mitbestimmen wollten. Über diesen Misserfolg stürzte Wolsey endgültig. Auch in England wurden Schulen zunächst in den Bischofsstädten gegründet, um die Kirche mit Nachwuchs an gebildeten Klerikern zu versorgen. Einen neuen Höhepunkt erreichte die Bildnismalerei nach der Mitte des Jahrhundert begann, eskalierte im folgenden Jahrhundert dann aber endgültig. Ab etwa bestanden nur noch diese drei Königreiche, denn die anderen waren in ihnen aufgegangen. Revolutionen können ja vieles sein. Johanns Sohn, Edward I. Elisabeth reagierte mit scharfen antikatholischen Gesetzen. Im Sommer konnte der König die schottische Invasion nur beenden, indem er einer Zahlung von Pfund täglich bis zu einem endgültigen Frieden zustimmte.

Geschichte england -

Der ständige Kampf gegen die Wikinger, in dem Alfred zunächst in der Schlacht bei Englefield und der Schlacht von Reading keinen durchschlagenden Erfolg erzielte, wirkte als Katalysator zur weitgehenden Einigung Englands unter dem König von Wessex. In dieser Situation erkrankte der wenig robuste Eduard VI. Sie erklärte sofort den unter Wilhelm vorbereiteten Krieg gegen Frankreich und Spanien. Einflussreiche, vermögende und gebildete Bürgerliche konnten im Ansehen auf eine Ebene mit dem Adel gelangen. Doch mit dem Hundertjährigen Krieg — endete diese Hochzeit. In der Wissenschaftstheorie setzte sich vor allem mit John Locke und David Hume, den Hauptvertretern der britischen Aufklärung ein strenger Empirismus durch. Universitäten begannen kurz vor in Oxford und ab in Cambridge zu entstehen, zunächst als lose Zusammenschlüsse von Gelehrten und Studenten, kurz darauf gezielt von König und Kirche gefördert und kontrolliert und ab der Mitte des

Specific information can be seen at a glance with concise and accurate details via the England History Timeline. This History timeline of a famous place is suitable for children and kids and include many important events of significant occurrence and outcome which are detailed in the England History Timeline.

Crucifixion of Jesus in the Roman province of Jerusalem and the origin of Christianity. The English inhabitants were referred to as the Anglo-Saxons and ruled by different tribes and rulers.

Between the Norman line rule the English. William invades Wales and builds castles on the borders. The Knights Templar founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city.

Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the Third Crusade. The Hundred Years War begins.

England and France struggle for dominance of Western Europe. The king, realizing that Simnel was a dupe, employed him in the royal kitchen.

Again with support from Margaret of Burgundy, he invaded England four times from — before he was captured and imprisoned in the Tower of London.

Both Warbeck and the Earl of Warwick were dangerous even in captivity, and Henry executed them in before Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain would allow their daughter Catherine to come to England and marry his son Arthur.

In , Henry defeated Cornish rebels marching on London. The rest of his reign was relatively peaceful, despite worries about succession after the death of his wife Elizabeth of York in Henry VII's foreign policy was peaceful.

He had made an alliance with Spain and the Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I , but in , when they went to war with France, England was dragged into the conflict.

Impoverished and his hold on power insecure, Henry had no desire for war. He quickly reached an understanding with the French and renounced all claims to their territory except the port of Calais, realizing also that he could not stop them from incorporating the Duchy of Brittany.

In return, the French agreed to recognize him as king and stop sheltering pretenders. Shortly afterwards, they became preoccupied with adventures in Italy.

Henry also reached an understanding with Scotland, agreeing to marry his daughter Margaret to that country's king James IV. Upon becoming king, Henry inherited a government severely weakened and degraded by the Wars of the Roses.

The treasury was empty, having been drained by Edward IV's Woodville in-laws after his death. Through a tight fiscal policy and sometimes ruthless tax collection and confiscations, Henry refilled the treasury by the time of his death.

He also effectively rebuilt the machinery of government. In , the king's son Arthur , having married Catherine of Aragon , died of illness at age 15, leaving his younger brother Henry, Duke of York as heir.

When the king himself died in , the position of the Tudors was secure at last, and his son succeeded him unopposed. Henry VIII began his reign with much optimism.

The handsome, athletic young king stood in sharp contrast to his wary, miserly father. Henry's lavish court quickly drained the treasury of the fortune he inherited.

He married the widowed Catherine of Aragon , and they had several children, but none survived infancy except a daughter, Mary. In , the young king started a war in France.

Although England was an ally of Spain, one of France's principal enemies, the war was mostly about Henry's desire for personal glory, despite his sister Mary being married to the French king Louis XII.

The war accomplished little. The English army suffered badly from disease, and Henry was not even present at the one notable victory, the Battle of the Spurs.

Meanwhile, James IV of Scotland despite being Henry's other brother-in-law , activated his alliance with the French and declared war on England.

While Henry was dallying in France, Catherine, who was serving as regent in his absence, and his advisers were left to deal with this threat.

At the Battle of Flodden on 9 September , the Scots were completely defeated. James and most of the Scottish nobles were killed. When Henry returned from France, he was given credit for the victory.

Eventually, Catherine was no longer able to have any more children. The king became increasingly nervous about the possibility of his daughter Mary inheriting the throne, as England's one experience with a female sovereign, Matilda in the 12th century, had been a catastrophe.

He eventually decided that it was necessary to divorce Catherine and find a new queen. To persuade the Church to allow this, Henry cited the passage in the Book of Leviticus: However, Catherine insisted that she and Arthur never consummated their brief marriage and that the prohibition did not apply here.

The timing of Henry's case was very unfortunate; it was and the Pope had been imprisoned by emperor Charles V , Catherine's nephew and the most powerful man in Europe, for siding with his archenemy Francis I of France.

Because he could not divorce in these circumstances, Henry seceded from the Church, in what became known as the English Reformation. The newly established Church of England amounted to little more than the existing Catholic Church, but led by the king rather than the Pope.

It took a number of years for the separation from Rome to be completed, and many were executed for resisting the king's religious policies.

In , Catherine was banished from court and spent the rest of her life until her death in alone in an isolated manor home, barred from contact with Mary.

Secret correspondence continued thanks to her ladies-in-waiting. Their marriage was declared invalid, making Mary an illegitimate child.

Henry married Anne Boleyn secretly in January , just as his divorce from Catherine was finalised. They had a second, public wedding. Anne soon became pregnant and may have already been when they wed.

But on 7 September , she gave birth to a daughter, Elizabeth. The king was devastated at his failure to obtain a son after all the effort it had taken to remarry.

Gradually, he came to develop a disliking of his new queen for her strange behaviour. In , when Anne was pregnant again, Henry was badly injured in a jousting accident.

Shaken by this, the queen gave birth prematurely to a stillborn boy. By now, the king was convinced that his marriage was hexed, and having already found a new queen, Jane Seymour, he put Anne in the Tower of London on charges of witchcraft.

Afterwards, she was beheaded along with five men her brother included accused of adultery with her. The marriage was then declared invalid, so that Elizabeth, just like her half sister, became a bastard.

Henry immediately married Jane Seymour , who became pregnant almost as quickly. On 12 October , she gave birth to a healthy boy, Edward, which was greeted with huge celebrations.

However, the queen died of puerperal sepsis ten days later. Henry genuinely mourned her death, and at his own passing nine years later, he was buried next to her.

The king married a fourth time in , to the German Anne of Cleves for a political alliance with her Protestant brother, the Duke of Cleves.

He also hoped to obtain another son in case something should happen to Edward. Anne proved a dull, unattractive woman and Henry did not consummate the marriage.

He quickly divorced her, and she remained in England as a kind of adopted sister to him. He married again, to a year-old named Catherine Howard.

But when it became known that she was neither a virgin at the wedding, nor a faithful wife afterwards, she ended up on the scaffold and the marriage declared invalid.

His sixth and last marriage was to Catherine Parr , who was more his nursemaid than anything else, as his health was failing since his jousting accident in In , the king started a new campaign in France, but unlike in , he only managed with great difficulty.

He only conquered the city of Boulogne, which France retook in Scotland also declared war and at Solway Moss was again totally defeated. Henry's paranoia and suspicion worsened in his last years.

The number of executions during his year reign numbered tens of thousands. He died in January at age 55 and was succeeded by his son, Edward VI.

Although he showed piety and intelligence, Edward VI was only nine years old when he became king in He took the title of Protector. While some see him as a high-minded idealist, his stay in power culminated in a crisis in when many counties of the realm were up in protest.

Somerset, disliked by the Regency Council for being autocratic, was removed from power by John Dudley , who is known as Lord President Northumberland.

Northumberland proceeded to adopt the power for himself, but he was more conciliatory and the Council accepted him. During Edward's reign England changed from being a Catholic nation to a Protestant one, in schism from Rome.

Edward showed great promise but fell violently ill of tuberculosis in and died that August, two months before his 16th birthday.

Northumberland made plans to place Lady Jane Grey on the throne and marry her to his son, so that he could remain the power behind the throne.

His plot failed in a matter of days, Jane Grey was beheaded, and Mary I — took the throne amidst popular demonstration in her favour in London, which contemporaries described as the largest show of affection for a Tudor monarch.

Mary had never been expected to hold the throne, at least not since Edward was born. She was a devoted Catholic who believed that she could reverse the Reformation.

Returning England to Catholicism led to the burnings of Protestants, which are recorded especially in John Foxe 's Book of Martyrs.

The union was difficult because Mary was already in her late 30s and Philip was a Catholic and a foreigner, and so not very welcome in England.

This wedding also provoked hostility from France, already at war with Spain and now fearing being encircled by the Habsburgs.

Calais, the last English outpost on the Continent, was then taken by France. King Philip — had very little power, although he did protect Elizabeth.

He was not popular in England, and spent little time there. In reality, she may have had uterine cancer. Her death in November was greeted with huge celebrations in the streets of London.

After Mary I died in , Elizabeth I came to the throne. Much of Elizabeth's success was in balancing the interests of the Puritans and Catholics.

She managed to offend neither to a large extent, although she clamped down on Catholics towards the end of her reign as war with Catholic Spain loomed.

Despite the need for an heir, Elizabeth declined to marry, despite offers from a number of suitors across Europe, including the Swedish king Erik XIV.

This created endless worries over her succession, especially in the s when she nearly died of smallpox. It has been often rumoured that she had a number of lovers including Francis Drake , but there is no hard evidence.

Elizabeth maintained relative government stability. Apart from the Revolt of the Northern Earls in , she was effective in reducing the power of the old nobility and expanding the power of her government.

Elizabeth's government did much to consolidate the work begun under Thomas Cromwell in the reign of Henry VIII, that is, expanding the role of the government and effecting common law and administration throughout England.

During the reign of Elizabeth and shortly afterwards, the population grew significantly: The queen ran afoul of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots , who was a devoted Catholic and so was forced to abdicate her throne Scotland had recently become Protestant.

She fled to England, where Elizabeth immediately had her arrested. Mary spent the next 19 years in confinement, but proved too dangerous to keep alive, as the Catholic powers in Europe considered her the legitimate ruler of England.

She was eventually tried for treason, sentenced to death, and beheaded in February Historians often depict it as the golden age in English history.

The symbol of Britannia was first used in and often thereafter to mark the Elizabethan age as a renaissance that inspired national pride through classical ideals, international expansion, and naval triumph over the hated Spanish foe.

In terms of the entire century, the historian John Guy argues that "England was economically healthier, more expansive, and more optimistic under the Tudors " than at any time in a thousand years.

This "golden age" [51] represented the apogee of the English Renaissance and saw the flowering of poetry, music and literature. The era is most famous for theatre , as William Shakespeare and many others composed plays that broke free of England's past style of theatre.

It was an age of exploration and expansion abroad, while back at home, the Protestant Reformation became more acceptable to the people, most certainly after the Spanish Armada was repulsed.

It was also the end of the period when England was a separate realm before its royal union with Scotland. The Elizabethan Age is viewed so highly largely because of the periods before and after.

It was a brief period of largely internal peace after the battles between Catholics and Protestants during the English Reformation and before battles between parliament and the monarchy of the 17th century.

England was also well-off compared to the other nations of Europe. Italian Renaissance had ended due to foreign domination of the peninsula. France was embroiled in religious battles until the Edict of Nantes in Also, the English had been expelled from their last outposts on the continent.

Due to these reasons, the centuries long conflict with France was largely suspended for most of Elizabeth's reign. England's great rival was Spain, both in Europe and the Americas.

Skirmishes exploded into the Anglo-Spanish War of — Then Spain provided some support for Irish Catholics in a debilitating rebellion against English rule, and Spanish naval and land forces made a series of reversals of English offensives.

This drained English Exchequer and economy that had been carefully restored under Elizabeth's guidance. English commercial and territorial expansion was limited until the Treaty of London of the year after Elizabeth's death.

During the brief height of the Anglo-Spanish war, almost 45, were killed, of which one-third were Spanish, the rest English.

Economically, the country began to benefit greatly from the new era of trans-Atlantic trade. In foreign policy, Elizabeth played against each other the major powers France and Spain, as well as the papacy and Scotland.

These were all Catholic and each wanted to end Protestantism in England. Elizabeth was cautious in foreign affairs and only half-heartedly supported a number of ineffective, poorly resourced military campaigns in the Netherlands, France and Ireland.

The major war came with Spain, — When Spain tried to invade and conquer England, the defeat of the Spanish Armada in associated Elizabeth's name with what is popularly viewed as one of the greatest victories in English history.

Her enemies failed to combine and Elizabeth's foreign policy successfully navigated all the dangers. In all, the Tudor period is seen as a decisive one which set up many important questions which would have to be answered in the next century and during the English Civil War.

These were questions of the relative power of the monarch and Parliament and to what extent one should control the other.

Some historians think that Thomas Cromwell affected a "Tudor Revolution" in government, and it is certain that Parliament became more important during his chancellorship.

Other historians argue that the "Tudor Revolution" extended to the end of Elizabeth's reign, when the work was all consolidated. Although the Privy Council declined after Elizabeth's death, it was very effective while she was alive.

He was the first monarch to rule the entire island of Britain, but the countries remained separate politically. Upon taking power, James made peace with Spain, and for the first half of the 17th century, England remained largely inactive in European politics.

Several assassination attempts were made on James, notably the Main Plot and Bye Plots of , and most famously, on 5 November , the Gunpowder Plot , by a group of Catholic conspirators, led by Robert Catesby , which caused more antipathy in England towards Catholicism.

In England built an establishment at Jamestown. This was the beginning of colonialism by England in North America.

Many English settled then in North America for religious or economic reasons. Charles surrendered to the Scottish army at Newark.

He was eventually handed over to the English Parliament in early The capture and trial of Charles led to his beheading in January at Whitehall Gate in London, making England a republic.

This shocked the rest of Europe. The king argued to the end that only God could judge him. The trial and execution were a precursor of sorts to the beheading of Louis XVI years later.

Cromwell was given the title Lord Protector in , making him 'king in all but name' to his critics. After he died in , his son Richard Cromwell succeeded him in the office but he was forced to abdicate within a year.

For a while it seemed as if a new civil war would begin as the New Model Army split into factions. Troops stationed in Scotland under the command of George Monck eventually marched on London to restore order.

However, the power of the crown was less than before the Civil War. By the 18th century England rivaled the Netherlands as one of the freest countries in Europe.

In , London was swept by the plague , and in by the Great Fire for 5 days which destroyed about 15, buildings. In , the Exclusion crisis consisted of attempts to prevent accession of James, heir to Charles II, because he was Catholic.

In November , William invaded England and succeeded in being crowned. James tried to retake the throne in the Williamite War , but was defeated at the Battle of the Boyne in In December , one of the most important constitutional documents in English history, the Bill of Rights , was passed.

For example, the Sovereign could not suspend laws passed by Parliament, levy taxes without parliamentary consent, infringe the right to petition, raise a standing army during peacetime without parliamentary consent, deny the right to bear arms to Protestant subjects, unduly interfere with parliamentary elections, punish members of either House of Parliament for anything said during debates, require excessive bail or inflict cruel and unusual punishments.

In parts of Scotland and Ireland, Catholics loyal to James remained determined to see him restored to the throne, and staged a series of bloody uprisings.

As a result, any failure to pledge loyalty to the victorious King William was severely dealt with. The most infamous example of this policy was the Massacre of Glencoe in The Acts of Union between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed by both parliaments in , which dissolved them in order to form a Kingdom of Great Britain governed by a unified Parliament of Great Britain according to the Treaty of Union.

The Acts joined the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland previously separate states , with separate legislatures but with the same monarch into a single Kingdom of Great Britain.

Although described as a Union of Crowns, until there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head.

There had been three attempts in , , and to unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early 18th century that the idea had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons.

The Acts took effect on 1 May On the Union, historian Simon Schama said "What began as a hostile merger, would end in a full partnership in the most powerful going concern in the world In ended the reign of Queen Anne , the last monarch of the House of Stuart.

Several Planned French Invasions were attempted, also with the intention of placing the Stuarts on the throne. The Act of Union of formally assimilated Ireland within the British political process and from 1 January created a new state called the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland , which united the Kingdom of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland to form a single political entity.

The English capital of London was adopted as the capital of the Union. Following the formation of the United Kingdom, the history of England is no longer the history of a sovereign nation, but rather the history of one of the countries of the United Kingdom.

In the late 18th century and early 19th centuries, technological advances and mechanization resulted in the Industrial Revolution which transformed a largely agrarian society and caused considerable social upheaval.

Economies of scale and increased output per worker allowed steam-based factories to undercut production of traditional cottage industries.

Much of the agricultural workforce was uprooted from the countryside and moved into large urban centres of production.

The consequent overcrowding into areas with little supporting infrastructure saw dramatic increases in mortality, crime, and social deprivation.

Many Sunday schools for pre-working age children 5 or 6 had funeral clubs to pay for each other's funeral arrangements. The process of industrialization threatened many livelihoods, which prompted some to sabotage factories.

These saboteurs were known as " Luddites ". The Local Government Act of was the first systematic attempt to impose a standardised system of local government in England.

The system was based on the existing counties today known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of Later, the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government.

All administrative counties and county boroughs were divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.

During the s, the need for local administration greatly increased, prompting piecemeal adjustments. The sanitary districts and parish councils had legal status, but were not part of the mechanism of government.

They were run by volunteers; often no-one could be held responsible for the failure to undertake the required duties.

Furthermore, the increased "county business" could not be handled by the Quarter Sessions , nor was this appropriate.

Finally, there was a desire to see local administration performed by elected officials, as in the reformed municipal boroughs. By , these shortcomings were clear, and the Local Government Act was the first systematic attempt to create a standardised system of local government in England.

The system was based on the existing counties now known as the historic counties , since the major boundary changes of The counties themselves had had some boundary changes in the preceding 50 years, mainly to remove enclaves and exclaves.

These statutory counties were to be used for non-administrative functions: With the advent of elected councils, the offices of lord lieutenant and sheriff became largely ceremonial.

The statutory counties formed the basis for the so-called 'administrative counties'. However, it was felt that large cities and primarily rural areas in the same county could not be well administered by the same body.

Thus 59 "counties in themselves", or 'county boroughs', were created to administer the urban centres of England. These were part of the statutory counties, but not part of the administrative counties.

In , the Local Government Act created a second tier of local government. Henceforth, all administrative counties and county boroughs would be divided into either rural or urban districts, allowing more localised administration.

The municipal boroughs reformed after were brought into this system as special cases of urban districts.

The urban and rural districts were based on, and incorporated the sanitary districts which created in with adjustments, so that districts did not overlap two counties.

The Act also provided for the establishment of civil parishes. However, the civil parishes were not a complete third-tier of local government.

Instead, they were 'community councils' for smaller, rural settlements, which did not have a local government district to themselves.

Where urban parish councils had previously existed, they were absorbed into the new urban districts. A prolonged agricultural depression in Britain at the end of the 19th century, together with the introduction in the 20th century of increasingly heavy levels of taxation on inherited wealth, put an end to agricultural land as the primary source of wealth for the upper classes.

Many estates were sold or broken up, and this trend was accelerated by the introduction of protection for agricultural tenancies, encouraging outright sales, from the midth century.

There is a movement in England to create a devolved English Parliament. This issue is referred to as the West Lothian question.

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